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Lyme disease is an infection that is spread by ticks. You can get Lyme disease if you are bitten by an infected tick. But most people who have had a tick bite don't get Lyme disease. It's still important to see your doctor if you have a tick attached to you that you can't remove.
Lyme disease is common in the United States. It can also be found in Canada, Europe, and Asia.
Lyme disease is caused by bacteria. Infected ticks spread the bacteria by biting people or animals.
Two types of ticks carry the Lyme disease bacteria in the U.S. They are:
Remove ticks as soon as you notice them. Infected ticks usually don't spread Lyme disease until they have been attached for at least 36 hours.
One sign of Lyme disease is a round, red rash that spreads at the site of a tick bite. This rash can get very large.
Flu-like symptoms are also common. People in the early stages of Lyme disease may feel very tired and have headaches, sore muscles and joints, and a fever.
These symptoms can start at any time, from 3 days to up to a month after you have been bitten. Some people don't have any symptoms when they are in the early stages of Lyme disease. And they may not even remember getting a tick bite.
If Lyme disease goes untreated, you can have more serious symptoms over time. These include:
Your doctor will ask you questions about your symptoms. Your doctor will also ask about your activities to try to find out if you have been around infected ticks. You may have a blood test to see if you have certain antibodies in your blood that could mean you have the disease.
The main treatment for Lyme disease is antibiotics. These medicines usually cure Lyme disease within 3 weeks of starting treatment.
It's important to get treatment for Lyme disease as soon as you can. If it goes untreated, Lyme disease can lead to problems with your skin, joints, nervous system, and heart. These can occur weeks, months, or even years after your tick bite. The problems often get better with antibiotics, but in rare cases they can last the rest of your life.
The best way to prevent Lyme disease is to protect yourself from ticks. Cover up as much skin as you can when you're going to be in wooded or grassy areas. Wear a hat, a long-sleeved shirt, and long pants with the legs tucked into your socks. And keep in mind that it's easier to see ticks on light-colored clothes.
Use a bug repellent that has a chemical (such as DEET, IR3535, or Picaridin) to keep away ticks. Use products that contain 0.5% permethrin on your clothing and outdoor gear, such as your tent. You can also buy clothing already treated with permethrin.
Check your pets for ticks after they've been outside. You can't get Lyme disease from your pet. But your pet can bring infected ticks inside. These ticks can fall off your pet and attach to you. Check your clothing and outdoor gear after you have been outside. Remove any ticks you find. Then put your clothing in a clothes dryer on high heat for 1 hour to kill any ticks that might remain.
Lyme disease is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria. Infected ticks spread the bacteria by biting people or animals.
Dogs, cats, and horses can become infected with Lyme disease bacteria, but they can't pass the illness to humans. But infected ticks may fall off the animals and then bite and infect humans.
The symptoms of Lyme disease depend on the stage of the disease. You may first notice symptoms weeks to months after the tick bite. If the disease isn't treated, it may progress from mild symptoms to serious, long-term disabilities.
If you don't have symptoms during stage 1, your first symptoms may be those found in stage 2 or 3.
Lyme disease is caused by a bite from a tick that is infected with bacteria. When an infected tick bites you, bacteria travel to the tick's salivary glands and then into your body through your skin. It takes about 24 hours for a tick to attach itself to the skin and begin to feed. The tick generally must be attached to you for about 36 hours in order for it to transmit the Lyme disease bacteria.
There are three stages of Lyme disease. If the disease isn't treated, it may progress in stages from mild symptoms to serious, long-term disabilities.
The main risk factor for Lyme disease is exposure to ticks that are infected with Lyme disease bacteria. In areas where Lyme disease is widespread, such as the northeastern United States and Canada, several factors may increase your risk, including:
Remove ticks right away, as soon as you notice them. Your risk for getting Lyme disease increases the longer a tick is attached to your body. Ticks generally cannot transmit Lyme disease until they are attached for at least 36 hours.
Call your doctor if:
The following health professionals can diagnose and prescribe treatment for Lyme disease or complications of Lyme disease:
Lyme disease is often hard to diagnose. Your doctor will take a careful medical history and do a physical examination to help diagnose early Lyme disease. You may be asked if you have recently visited an area where you may have been exposed to ticks. The doctor will ask about your symptoms and look for physical signs of Lyme disease. The clearest physical sign is an expanding, circular red rash (called erythema migrans).
Lyme disease tests are blood tests that help confirm a diagnosis of Lyme disease. These tests can detect antibodies to the bacteria that cause Lyme disease, but they may not be needed. The decision about when to use blood tests for Lyme disease depends on whether your doctor strongly thinks you have Lyme disease and whether the test results will change the course of your treatment.
Other tests, such as a skin biopsy, may be done to confirm a diagnosis.
If possible, put the tick that was attached to you in a dry jar or a ziplock bag and take it to the doctor with you. Sometimes tests can be done on the tick to see if it is a carrier of Lyme disease.
Lyme disease is treated with antibiotics.
The type of antibiotic your doctor gives you and the number of days you take it will depend on your symptoms and the stage of the disease. Talk to your doctor if you have any questions about your antibiotic treatment.
Antibiotic treatment for early Lyme disease is effective, and symptoms usually go away within 3 weeks of treatment.
The earlier antibiotic treatment is started after infection, the faster and more completely you will recover.
If Lyme disease isn't diagnosed and treated until later problems arise, it may take you a long time to get better. Or you may need more treatment.
If the disease gets worse, treatment options include:
People with partial facial paralysis as a result of Lyme disease may improve on their own without more treatment.
Even after successful treatment for Lyme disease, you can get it again. So it is important to continue to protect yourself against tick bites.
Lyme disease can be prevented by avoiding and removing ticks. You can also get the disease again after successful treatment, so it is important to continue to protect yourself against tick bites.
Lyme disease isn't contagious and cannot be spread from person to person. But there are certain precautions you can take to prevent the spread of the illness.
If you have active Lyme disease, don't donate blood. The bacteria that cause the illness can be transmitted this way. If you have been treated for Lyme disease, you may be able to donate blood, but check with the blood bank first.
A pregnant woman may be able to pass Lyme disease to her unborn child, but proven cases are rare. Lyme disease hasn't been shown to cause birth defects or fetal death.
Antibiotics are the main treatment for Lyme disease. The first course of antibiotics almost always cures the infection. But if symptoms continue, more evaluation may be needed.
The type of antibiotic prescribed, the amount, and whether the medicine is taken orally, as an injection, or through a vein (intravenous, or IV) depends on how bad your symptoms are and how long you've had Lyme disease.
Different antibiotics may be used to treat children and adults. The decision to take medicines for Lyme disease may be based on one or more of these factors:
Other Works Consulted
Halperin JJ, et al. (2007). Practice parameter: Treatment of nervous system Lyme disease (an evidence-based review): Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology, 69(1): 91–102.
Tompkins DC, Luft BJ (2009). Lyme disease and other spirochetal zoonoses. In DC Dale et al., eds., ACP Medicine, section 7, chap. 7. Hamilton, ON: BC Decker.
Wormser GP, et al. (2006). The clinical assessment, treatment, and prevention of Lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, and babesiosis: Clinical practice guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 43(9): 1089–1134. [Erratum in Clinical Infectious Diseases, 45(7): 941.]
Current as ofJuly 30, 2018
Author: Healthwise StaffMedical Review: E. Gregory Thompson MD - Internal MedicineAdam Husney MD - Family MedicineKathleen Romito MD - Family MedicineChristine Hahn MD - EpidemiologyW. David Colby IV MSc, MD, FRCPC - Infectious Disease
Current as of:
July 30, 2018
Medical Review:E. Gregory Thompson MD - Internal Medicine & Adam Husney MD - Family Medicine & Kathleen Romito MD - Family Medicine & Christine Hahn MD - Epidemiology & W. David Colby IV MSc, MD, FRCPC - Infectious Disease
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