Leigh's Disease

National Organization for Rare Disorders, Inc.

Important
It is possible that the main title of the report Leigh's Disease is not the name you expected. Please check the synonyms listing to find the alternate name(s) and disorder subdivision(s) covered by this report.

Synonyms

  • Leigh Necrotizing Encephalopathy
  • Leigh's Syndrome
  • Necrotizing Encephalomyelopathy of Leigh's
  • SNE
  • Subacute Necrotizing Encephalopathy

Disorder Subdivisions

  • Infantile Necrotizing Encephalopathy
  • Classical Leigh's Disease
  • X-Linked Infantile Nectrotizing Encephalopathy
  • Adult-Onset Subacute Necrotizing Encephalomyelopathy

General Discussion

Leigh's disease is a rare genetic neurometabolic disorder. It is characterized by the degeneration of the central nervous system (i.e., brain, spinal cord, and optic nerve). The symptoms of Leigh's disease usually begin between the ages of three months and two years. Symptoms are associated with progressive neurological deterioration and may include loss of previously acquired motor skills, loss of appetite, vomiting, irritability, and/or seizure activity. As Leigh's disease progresses, symptoms may also include generalized weakness, lack of muscle tone (hypotonia), and episodes of lactic acidosis, which may lead to impairment of respiratory and kidney function.

There appear to be several different types of genetically determined enzyme defects that can cause Leigh's disease. Most individuals with Leigh's disease have defects of mitochondrial energy production, such as deficiency of an enzyme of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex or the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. In most cases, Leigh's disease is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. However, X-linked recessive and mitochondrial inheritance have also been noted.

Resources

Children Living with Inherited Metabolic Diseases (CLIMB)
Climb Building
176 Nantwich Road
Crewe, Intl CW2 6BG
United Kingdom
Tel: 0845 241 2174
Tel: 800 652 3181
Email: info.svcs@climb.org.uk
Internet: http://www.CLIMB.org.uk

March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation
1275 Mamaroneck Avenue
White Plains, NY 10605
Tel: (914)997-4488
Fax: (914)997-4763
Tel: (888)663-4637
Email: Askus@marchofdimes.com
Internet: http://www.marchofdimes.com

The Arc
1660 L Street, NW, Suite 301
Washington, DC 20036
Tel: (202)534-3700
Fax: (202)534-3731
Tel: (800)433-5255
TDD: (817)277-0553
Email: info@thearc.org
Internet: http://www.thearc.org

United Mitochondrial Disease Foundation
8085 Saltsburg Road
Suite 201
Pittsburgh, PA 15239
United States
Tel: (412)793-8077
Fax: (412)793-6477
Tel: (888)317-8633
Email: info@umdf.org
Internet: http://www.umdf.org

Lactic Acidosis Support Trust
1A Whitley Close
Middlewich
Cheshire, CW10 0NQ
United Kingdom
Tel: 0160683719
Fax: 01606837198

Children's Brain Diseases Foundation
350 Parnassus Avenue
Suite 900
San Francisco, CA 94117
USA
Tel: (415)665-3003
Fax: (415)665-3003
Email: jrider6022@aol.com

NIH/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
P.O. Box 5801
Bethesda, MD 20824
Tel: (301)496-5751
Fax: (301)402-2186
Tel: (800)352-9424
TDD: (301)468-5981
Email: me20t@nih.gov
Internet: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/

MUMS National Parent-to-Parent Network
150 Custer Court
Green Bay, WI 54301-1243
USA
Tel: (920)336-5333
Fax: (920)339-0995
Tel: (877)336-5333
Email: mums@netnet.net
Internet: http://www.netnet.net/mums/

Genetic and Rare Diseases (GARD) Information Center
PO Box 8126
Gaithersburg, MD 20898-8126
Tel: (301)251-4925
Fax: (301)251-4911
Tel: (888)205-2311
TDD: (888)205-3223
Internet: http://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/GARD/

Madisons Foundation
PO Box 241956
Los Angeles, CA 90024
Tel: (310)264-0826
Fax: (310)264-4766
Email: getinfo@madisonsfoundation.org
Internet: http://www.madisonsfoundation.org

MitoAction
14 Pembroke Street
Medford, MA 02155
Tel: (888)648-6228
Fax: (888)648-6228
Email: info@mitoaction.org
Internet: http://www.MitoAction.org

For a Complete Report

This is an abstract of a report from the National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD). A copy of the complete report can be downloaded free from the NORD website for registered users. The complete report contains additional information including symptoms, causes, affected population, related disorders, standard and investigational therapies (if available), and references from medical literature. For a full-text version of this topic, go to www.rarediseases.org and click on Rare Disease Database under "Rare Disease Information".

The information provided in this report is not intended for diagnostic purposes. It is provided for informational purposes only. NORD recommends that affected individuals seek the advice or counsel of their own personal physicians.

It is possible that the title of this topic is not the name you selected. Please check the Synonyms listing to find the alternate name(s) and Disorder Subdivision(s) covered by this report

This disease entry is based upon medical information available through the date at the end of the topic. Since NORD's resources are limited, it is not possible to keep every entry in the Rare Disease Database completely current and accurate. Please check with the agencies listed in the Resources section for the most current information about this disorder.

For additional information and assistance about rare disorders, please contact the National Organization for Rare Disorders at P.O. Box 1968, Danbury, CT 06813-1968; phone (203) 744-0100; web site www.rarediseases.org or email orphan@rarediseases.org

Last Updated:  3/11/2009
Copyright  1987, 1988, 1990, 1992, 1994, 1996, 1998, 1999, 2006, 2007, 2009 National Organization for Rare Disorders, Inc.

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