Color Blindness

Topic Overview

The eye (cross section)

What is color blindness?

Color blindness means that you have trouble seeing red, green, or blue or a mix of these colors. It's rare that a person sees no color at all.

Color blindness is also called a color vision problem.

A color vision problem can change your life. It may make it harder to learn and read, and you may not be able to have certain careers. But children and adults with color vision problems can learn to make up for their problems seeing color.

What causes color blindness?

Most color vision problems are inherited (genetic) and are present at birth.

People usually have three types of cone cells in the eye. Each type senses either red, green, or blue light. You see color when your cone cells sense different amounts of these three basic colors. The highest concentration of cone cells are found in the macula, which is the central part of the retina.

Inherited color blindness happens when you don't have one of these types of cone cells or they don't work right. You may not see one of these three basic colors, or you may see a different shade of that color or a different color. This type of color vision problem doesn't change over time.

A color vision problem isn't always inherited. In some cases, a person can have an acquired color vision problem. This can be caused by:

What are the symptoms?

The symptoms of color vision problems vary:

  • You may be able to see some colors but not others. For instance, you may not be able to tell the difference between some reds and greens but can see blue and yellow easily.
  • You may see many colors, so you may not know that you see color differently from others.
  • You may only be able to see a few shades of color, while most people can see thousands of colors.
  • In rare cases, some people see only black, white, and gray.

How is color blindness diagnosed?

Tests measure how well you recognize different colors.

  • In one type of test, you look at sets of colored dots and try to find a pattern in them, such as a letter or number. The patterns you see help your doctor know which colors you have trouble with.
  • In another type of test, you arrange colored chips in order according to how similar the colors are. People with color vision problems cannot arrange the colored chips correctly.

Because a color vision problem can have a big impact on a person's life, it is important to detect the problem as early as possible. In children, color vision problems can affect learning abilities and reading development. And color vision problems may limit career choices that require you to tell colors apart. Most experts recommend eye exams for children between ages 3 and 5. Vision screening is recommended for all children at least once before entering school, preferably between the ages of 3 and 4.

How is it treated?

Inherited color vision problems cannot be treated or corrected.

For the most common type of color blindness—red-green color deficiency—no treatment is needed, because you function normally. You may not be aware that you do not see colors the way they are seen by others.

Some acquired color vision problems can be treated, depending on the cause. For example, if a cataract is causing a problem with color vision, surgery to remove the cataract may restore normal color vision.

You can find ways to help make up for a color vision problem, such as:

  • Wearing colored contact lenses. These may help you see differences between colors. But these lenses don't provide normal color vision and can distort objects.
  • Wearing glasses that block glare. People with severe color vision problems can see differences between colors better when there is less glare and brightness.
  • Learning to look for cues like brightness or location, rather than colors. For example, you can learn the order of the three colored lights on a traffic signal.

How can you help a child who has color blindness?

Color vision problems may make it harder for children to learn and read, which can lead to poor schoolwork and low self-esteem.

You can help your child these ways.

  • Make sure your child is tested for color vision problems during routine eye tests. The sooner you know there is a problem, the sooner you can help your child. Eye exams should be done at all well-child visits.1
  • Tell your child's teachers and other school staff about the problem. This may be helpful. Suggest seating your child where there is no glare and using a color of chalk that your child can see.

Other Places To Get Help

Organizations

American Optometric Association (AOA)
243 North Lindbergh Boulevard
St. Louis, MO  63141
Phone: 1-800-365-2219
Web Address: www.aoa.org
 

The American Optometric Association (AOA), which is a national organization of optometrists, can provide information on eye health and eye problems.


EyeCare America
P.O. Box 429098
San Francisco, CA  94142-9098
Phone: 1-877-887-6327 toll-free
Fax: (415) 561-8567
Web Address: www.eyecareamerica.org
 

EyeCare America is a public service program of the Foundation of the American Academy of Ophthalmology. This site aims to raise awareness about eye diseases and eye care. It has information about eye conditions, treatments, and general eye health. You can check to see if you qualify for a free eye exam.


National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health
Information Office
31 Center Drive MSC 2510
Bethesda, MD  20892-2510
Phone: (301) 496-5248
Email: 2020@nei.nih.gov
Web Address: www.nei.nih.gov
 

As part of the U.S. National Institutes of Health, the National Eye Institute provides information on eye diseases and vision research. Publications are available to the public at no charge. The Web site includes links to various information resources.


Prevent Blindness America
211 West Wacker Drive
Suite 1700
Chicago, IL  60606
Phone: 1-800-331-2020
Web Address: www.preventblindness.org
 

Prevent Blindness America assists the visually impaired and provides consumer information on vision problems and vision aids. Its website has information about eye health and safety for children and adults. Many states have local affiliates.


References

Citations

  1. American Academy of Pediatrics, et al. (2003, reaffirmed 2007). Policy statement: Eye examination in infants, children, and young adults by pediatricians. Pediatrics, 111(4): 902–907.

Other Works Consulted

  • Chang DF (2011). Ophthalmologic examinations. In P Riordan-Eva, ET Cunningham, eds., Vaughan and Asbury's General Ophthalmology, 18th ed., pp. 27–57. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Fletcher EC, et al. (2011). Retina and retinal disorders. In P Riordan-Eva, JP Whitcher, eds., Vaughan and Asbury's General Ophthalmology, 18th ed., pp. 190–221. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Neitz J, et al. (2011). Color vision. In LA Levin et al., eds., Adler's Physiology of the Eye, 11th ed., pp. 648–654. New York: Saunders.
  • Sieving PA, Caruso RC (2009). Retinitis pigmentosa and related disorders. In M Yanoff, JS Duker, eds., Ophthalmology, 3rd ed., pp. 550–559. Edinburgh: Mosby Elsevier.

Credits

By Healthwise Staff
Primary Medical Reviewer Kathleen Romito, MD - Family Medicine
Specialist Medical Reviewer Christopher J. Rudnisky, MD, MPH, FRCSC - Ophthalmology
Last Revised January 25, 2013

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